Multiple Sclerosis Therapy: Physiology and Pathophysiology
Nerve Physiology : The communicating link between the spinal cord and the brain is possible due to central nervous system of our body. The central nervous system consists of nerves made by neurons. The nerves pass on the information send by spinal cord to the brain and by the brain to spinal cord.
This information is transmitted by nerves all the way through electrochemical impulses. Electrochemical impulses are also identified as “Action potentials”. These are pulse wave of current which travels along the neurons axon. The neuron’s axon is covered with an insulate cover called myelin sheath, in order to conduct action potentials quickly to a neurons axon.
Oligodendrocyte is accountable for myelinating axons in the central nervous system. Single oligodendrocyte, which is aspecial type of cell known as processes, is capable of extending its layer to cover around 1 mm of myelin sheath. This myelin sheath serves to decrease the capacity of the cell membrane bordering the neuronal axon.
Multiple Sclerosis is a so-called autoimmune disease, in which the body assaults its self-own central nervous system. Such assault leads to the demyelization of neuronal axons. The main effect of multiple sclerosis on our body is the humiliation of communication between the spinal cord and brain. Many bad neurological symptoms results due to the short of communication in central nervous system. This may result in cognitive and physical disabilities.
In our body, there are some T-cells known as lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are in the set of white blood cells. They play a major job in the immune system of the human body. Lymphocytes serve to identify unfamiliar antigens in the body and annihilate them. In a body, this helps in eradicating injurious cells. In a body suffering from Multiple Sclerosis, these T-cells identify the myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and extra myelin specific proteins, as strange.
In this manner, Lymphocytes of an individual with Multiple Sclerosis remove an immune system attack on oligodendrocytes and myelin. This procedure of assaulting and destroying oligodendrocytes from myelin can lead to the fully loss of myelin on the neuronal axons. This nerve harm in Multiple Sclerosis is caused due to inflammation, a pathologic characteristic of this disease.
Inflammation takes place when the immune cells go after the central nervous system. Lethal inflammatory mediators are released at the time of the immune system attack, in case of Multiple Sclerosis patients. This sustains the breakdown of the blood-brain barricade, resulting in the injury of axons in central nervous system.
As the Multiple Sclerosisadvances, the neurons axons can be transected or cut off. In the beginning stage, remyelination can occur. Is such case, oligodendrocytes try to remyelinate the affected axons? After many continue attacks, the effort at remyelination happens to be more and more unproductive. Due to which a scar-like plate gets built up. This plate is known is a lesion, which is a noticeable characteristic in a person suffering from Multiple Sclerosis.
Multiple Sclerosis can take numerous forms; these symptoms can occur in different attacks in the relapsing type of the disease. They get slowly built up over a period of time in the course of the disease.